Iraq is a republic with a democratically elected government. The country has 18 provinces and one region (Kurdistan). Islam is the state religion. The Iraqi Constitution stipulates the government’s dedication to democratic principles and the enforcement of human rights.
Iraq has been facing internal and external turmoil since the 1980s. In 2003, U.S.-led Multi-National-Force (MNF-I) ousted Saddam Hussein. The ensuing years were characterized by a high degree of political volatility, sectarian violence and population shifts. In June 2004, the Coalition Provincial Authority (CPA) transferred the powers to an Interim Iraqi Government, followed by national elections in January 2005, which established the Transitional National Assembly. The constitution passed by referendum in October 2005. In December 2005, general elections took place and led to the formation of the first elected post-Saddam Iraqi Government in May 2006. The governing coalition reflects the majority of the Shia population (60%), but also includes parties representing other religious and ethnic groups (Kurds, Turkomen and Christians).
2009 was marked by a significant improvement of the security situation and reduced sectarian violence; the ending of the UN Security Council (UNSC) mandate for Multinational Forces in Iraq (MNF-I), the conclusion of a Security Agreement with the US; and the successful holding of Provincial elections in January and Kurdistan Regional elections in June 2009. These elections constituted the first Iraqi polls since 2005 and were considered a litmus test for Iraq's safety and democratic maturity. National elections took place on 7 March 2010 and the formation of a new Government is currently ongoing.
Iraq continues to be faced with a complex mixture of political, security and socio-economic challenges. The internal organization of Iraq also continues to be subject of political debate and a number of issues, including the degree of federalism, the status of Kirkuk, the delineation of internal boundaries, and the sharing of resources remain unresolved.Back to Political & economic relation