Under the general bilateral framework of the EU-Egypt Association Agreement and the EU-Egypt Partnership Priorities approved in 2017, the EU works together with the government, public institutions and civil society to support democratisation and socioeconomic development by funding programmes and projects in many areas such as: Health, Education, Economic Development, Trade, Energy, Water, Transport, Science, Research and Innovation, Information Society; Social, Rural and Regional Development; Human Rights, Justice and Good Governance; Energy, Environment and Culture.
European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument
The overall budget allocation for bilateral EU assistance to Egypt under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) for 2007- 2013 was over €1 billion.
For the period 2014-2020, the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) was the main financial instrument for EU cooperation with Egypt. Under ENI, bilateral assistance followed multiannual programming through the Single Support Framework. For the period 2014-2016, a total amount of €320 million in grants was committed by the EU. In the framework of the EU's Single Support Framework 2017-2020 for Egypt, the following priority sectors, with an indicative allocation range of €432 – €528 million, were agreed:
- Economic modernisation, energy and environment.
- Social development and social protection.
- Governance, enhancing stability and modern democratic state.
- Complementary support measures for public administration and regulatory reform and the implementation of sector strategies, as well as for the promotion of civil society's role as an important contributor to the implementation of the EU-Egypt partnership and the sustainable development process underway in Egypt.
The new Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument (NDICI) will frame the EU’s cooperation for the period 2021-2027. The instrument’s approach includes grant funding as well as blending grants with loans from European and International Financing Institutions.
In addition to bilateral EU funding, Egypt also benefits from EU multi-country co-operation instruments and programmes such as the EU Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF), Cross Border Co-operation Instrument (CBC), Erasmus+, and a wide range of regional programmes.
Targeted technical assistance and peer-to-peer public sector cooperation are provided in many policy areas through a mix of specialised EU instruments, including Twinning operations, the Support for the Improvement in Governance and Management (SIGMA), and the Technical Assistance and Information Exchange (TAIEX).