The EU is facing increasing threats and challenges, ranging from conventional to transnational threats including hybrid threats, cyber-attacks and pervasive and persistent instability and conflict in its immediate vicinity and beyond. At the same time, climate change is exacerbating conflicts and instability in fragile societies, while melting ice in the Arctic is turning the region into a geopolitical flashpoint, with the opening of new shipping routes and access to natural gas and oil deposits. To address a fast-changing geopolitical landscape, the EU needs a Common Security and Defence Policy fit for the future. This will require new efforts and sustained efforts, as well as more investment in capabilities and innovative technologies to develop cutting-edge military capabilities, fill strategic gaps and reduce technological and industrial dependencies.

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Climate and Security

Climate change is one of the most pervasive current global threats to peace. Extreme weather events linked to climate change (hurricanes, floods, fires, tropical storms, drought, desertification, etc.) become more and more numerous. Their impacts occur against a backdrop of ongoing and worsening political conflict and humanitarian crises, with which they interact.

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Women, Peace and Security

Women play a crucial role in securing peace and security. Women are not only victims of war and violence, they also play active roles as combatants, peace builders, politicians and activists. The active participation of women in societies is both an essential goal and a means to help prevent and resolve conflicts, and to promote a culture of inclusive and sustainable peace. The EU is committed to implement the UNSC Resolution on Women, Peace and Security and to improve the EU’s internal gender balance.

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European Peace Facility

The European Peace Facility is a new off-budget fund, designed to prevent conflicts, preserve peace and strengthen international security, for the benefit of EU citizens, our partners and their populations.

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Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO)

In light of a changing security environment, the EU Global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy  started a process of closer cooperation in security and defence. EU Member States agreed to step up the European Union’s work in this area and acknowledged the need for enhanced coordination, increased investment and more cooperation in developing defence capabilities.

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Coordinated Annual Review on Defence (CARD)

The EU Global Strategy (EUGS) presented in June 2016 called for the “gradual synchronisation and mutual adaptation of national defence planning cycles and capability development practices” to enhance strategic convergence between Member States and facilitate and promote defence cooperation among them.

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European Defence Fund

The European Defence Fund (EDF) is the European Commission’s initiative to support collaborative defence research and development, and to foster an innovative and competitive defence industrial base.

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